|Horizon Europe〉Framework Partnership Agreement for developing the first large-scale quantum computers (FPA)

Expected Outcome:

Framework Partnership Agreements (FPAs) in quantum computing are expected to establish a stable and structured partnership between the Commission and the institutions and organisations in quantum computing who commit themselves to establishing, maintaining and implementing a strategic research roadmap aligned with and contributing to the Quantum Flagship Strategic Research Agenda in a scalable open quantum computing platform based on a specific quantum platform technology.

These partnerships will be set up through two FPAs, which will enable the completion of the research roadmap within the context of the agreement.

The consortia responding to the call may include research institutes, universities, RTOs, foundations, industry, SMEs as well as other organisations that can play a role in the realisation of these quantum computing platforms. The FPA will specify the objectives, the nature of the actions planned, and the procedure for awarding specific grants. Each FPA is expected to contribute to the following outcomes:

  • Demonstrate a universally programmable processor of at least 100 physical qubits (by 2025) operating in the NISQ domain including firmware and having sufficient coherence to perform computations involving all of its qubits; characterise with a hardware-agnostic test suite, including real-world applications, including for hybrid quantum/HPC computing, and the capability of out-performing classical computers on a number of relevant real-world use-cases; control needs to involve a low-level control system, a compiler and a scheduler.
  • By 2029, build a full stack, highly connected, high fidelity quantum computer of at least one thousand physical qubits, exhibiting scalability and capable of out-performing classical computers on relevant real-world use-cases.
  • Formulate standards and interface specifications for a complete software and hardware stack.


Fostering a vibrant European quantum computing industry will require hardware, software, and the development of user interfaces. Proposals for FPAs are expected to build on the quantum computing platforms supported under the Quantum Flagship ramp up phase. Proposals should target the development of open quantum computing platforms, integrating the key building blocks such as quantum processors in the NISQ regime (>100 qubits) with control electronics, low-level software, verification and validation of the quantum computation, etc.

Proposals should include practical strategies towards the break-even point of fault tolerance to increase algorithmic depth (number of operations) for quantum computing on existing platforms.

Proposals for FPAs must describe how the activities carried out during the ramp-up phase will be continued involving the relevant disciplines and stakeholders, how results of the ramp-up phase will be used, and how they will provide efficient coordination under strong scientific and engineering leadership.

Proposals for FPAs should also address how to integrate in these platforms a full software stack, including a compiler and scheduler, programming tools, a suite of algorithms, etc., that would allow them to showcase their capability of solving real and concrete computational problem(s) that demonstrate a quantum advantage.

Proposals should aim at the development of open quantum computer experimental systems, and work on the reduction of their form factor.

Proposals for FPAs should also cover: (i) the cooperation with complementary projects launched specifically in the area of the enabling quantum software stack (see HORIZON-CL4-2021-DIGITAL-EMERGING-02-10: Strengthening the quantum software ecosystem for quantum computing platforms), including also the need to establish from the beginning of this cooperation appropriate IP exploitation agreements; (ii) the collaboration with other initiatives or programmes at regional, national, transnational or global level; (iii) any additional support they may receive in their activities from relevant national, or regional programmes and initiatives; and (iv) contribution to the governance and overall coordination of the Quantum Technologies Flagship initiative. They should also contribute to spreading excellence across Europe; for example, through the involvement of Widening Countries.

Planned opening date: 28 October 2021

Deadline: 27 January 2022 17:00:00 Brussels time

For more information, please visit the European Commisssion web page.

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